GCP DBs: BigQuery, Spanner, Atlas, Alloy, Cloud SQL, Firebase, BigTable

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Google Cloud Platform offers a robust set of database services, catering to a wide spectrum of application and workload requirements. These database services within GCP are designed to provide scalable, high-performance, and fully managed solutions for storing, managing, and retrieving data.
Vast Edge delivers GCP Database services through a strategic and client-centric approach, combining expertise, best practices, and a commitment to meeting the specific data management needs of organizations.

GCP Database Offerings

  • Cloud SQL:
    Type: Fully managed relational database service.
    Database Engines: MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL Server.
    Features: Automatic backups, high availability, scalability, and support for popular relational database engines.

  • Cloud Spanner:
    Type: Globally distributed, horizontally scalable, and strongly consistent database service.
    Features: Horizontal scaling, global distribution, and ACID transactions at scale.

  • Cloud Firestore:
    Type: NoSQL document database.
    Features: Real-time updates, automatic scaling, and multi-region sup

  • Cloud Bigtable:
    Type: NoSQL big data database service.
    Features: High-throughput, scalable, and suitable for large analytical and operational workloads.

  • Cloud Memorystore:
    Type: Fully managed in-memory data store service.
    Features: Supports Redis, provides a fast and scalable caching solution.

  • Cloud Storage:
    Type: Object storage service.
    Use Case: Storing and retrieving any amount of data, serving websites directly from storage, and data archival.

  • Cloud Datastore:
    Type: NoSQL document database (legacy; Cloud Firestore is recommended for new projects).
    Features: Scales horizontally, supports transactions, and provides a schemaless data model.

  • Cloud BigQuery:
    Type: Fully managed serverless data warehouse and analytics platform.
    Features: Analyzing large datasets with SQL-like queries, real-time analytics, and integration with other GCP services.

  • Cloud Pub/Sub:
    Type: Messaging service.
    Use Case: Building event-driven systems and integrating applications.

  • Cloud Dataprep:
    Type: Cloud-native data preparation service.
    Features: Explore, clean, and transform data for analysis.

  • Cloud Dataproc:
    Type: Fully managed Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop service.
    Features: Processing big datasets with popular frameworks.

  • Cloud Composer:
    Type: Fully managed workflow orchestration service.
    Features: Orchestrating workflows using Apache Airflow.

These services cover a range of database and data processing needs, from traditional relational databases to NoSQL databases, in-memory data stores, data warehousing, and more. The choice of the database service depends on factors such as data structure, volume, performance requirements, and application architecture.

Fundamental Elements of Vast Edge's Approach

Assessment and Requirement Analysis

Vast Edge commences with a comprehensive assessment to understand the client's specific data management needs. This involves a detailed analysis of data types, scalability requirements, and the unique use cases that GCP Database services can effectively address.

Strategic Planning

Based on the assessment findings, Vast Edge formulates a strategic plan that serves as a blueprint for the optimal utilization of GCP Database services. This plan is intricately designed to align with the client's business objectives, ensuring a robust and tailored data management strategy.

Database Selection and Configuration

Vast Edge assists clients in selecting the most suitable GCP Database service for their requirements. Whether it involves relational databases through Cloud SQL, NoSQL solutions with Cloud Firestore, or other offerings, Vast Edge ensures the precise match for the client's data management needs.

Implementation and Migration

Vast Edge oversees the seamless implementation and migration process to GCP Database services. This includes deploying databases, configuring settings, and executing meticulous data migration strategies to ensure a smooth transition with minimal disruption.

Performance Optimization

Vast Edge prioritizes the optimization of GCP Database service performance. This entails fine-tuning configurations, ensuring efficient resource utilization, and implementing industry best practices to enhance overall database responsiveness.

Security and Compliance

The security and compliance aspects of GCP Database services are paramount for Vast Edge. This involves implementing robust security measures, encryption protocols, and access controls to align with industry compliance standards and protect the integrity of client data.

Monitoring and Maintenance:

Vast Edge provides continuous monitoring and maintenance services for GCP databases. This proactive approach involves real-time performance monitoring, early issue detection, and the timely application of updates to uphold a secure and optimized database environment.

Backup and Disaster Recovery

Vast Edge implements resilient backup and disaster recovery strategies for GCP databases. This ensures data integrity and provides the capability for swift recovery in the event of unforeseen disruptions.

Google Cloud SQL

Google Cloud SQL is a fully managed relational database service provided by Google Cloud Platform (GCP). It enables users to deploy, manage, and scale relational databases in the cloud without the need to handle the administrative tasks associated with database management.

Key Aspects of GCP Cloud SQL:

  • Database Engines: Cloud SQL supports popular relational database engines, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQL Server.
    Fully Managed Service: Google Cloud SQL is a fully managed service, meaning that Google takes care of routine database administration tasks such as backups, updates, and maintenance.
  • High Availability and Replication:Cloud SQL provides options for high availability by supporting read replicas and automated failover. This ensures that your database remains available even in the case of a regional outage.
  • Scalability: Cloud SQL allows users to scale their databases vertically by adjusting the amount of CPU and memory resources allocated to the instance. Horizontal scaling is also supported through the use of read replicas.
  • Security Features: Security features include data encryption in transit and at rest, identity and access management (IAM) integration, and the option to use private IP addresses for increased security.
  • Automated Backups and Point-in-Time Recovery:: Cloud SQL performs automated backups, and users can configure the retention period for these backups. Point-in-time recovery allows restoring a database to a specific moment in time.
  • Integrated with Other GCP Services: Cloud SQL seamlessly integrates with other GCP services, enabling users to build comprehensive cloud-based applications. For example, it can be used in conjunction with Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) and App Engine.
  • Database Migration Service: Google Cloud offers a Database Migration Service to simplify the process of migrating on-premises or other cloud-based databases to Cloud SQL.
  • Monitoring and Logging:Cloud SQL integrates with Stackdriver Monitoring and Logging, providing insights into the performance and health of your databases.
  • Developer-Friendly: Cloud SQL is designed to be developer-friendly with features such as automatic software patching, maintenance windows for updates, and support for various development frameworks.
  • Cost Management:Cost Management: Pricing for Cloud SQL is based on the resources consumed, and users only pay for what they use. It offers a transparent and predictable pricing model.

GCP Cloud SQL is suitable for a wide range of applications that require a relational database, and its managed nature simplifies database administration tasks, allowing developers to focus on building and scaling applications.


AlloyDB for PostgreSQL is a fully managed, PostgreSQL-compatible database service that's designed for your most demanding workloads, including hybrid transactional and analytical processing. AlloyDB pairs a Google-built database engine with a cloud-based, multi-node architecture to deliver enterprise-grade performance, reliability, and availability.

How AlloyDB works

An application connects to AlloyDB instances using standard PostgreSQL protocols and techniques. The application then uses PostgreSQL query syntax to work with the database.
Under the surface, AlloyDB utilizes a cloud-based hierarchy of components and features that are designed to maximize the availability of your data and optimize query performance and throughput. Google Cloud administrative tools let you monitor the health of your AlloyDB deployment, adjusting its scale and size to best fit the changing demands of your workload.

AlloyDB Nodes and instances

A cluster contains several nodes, which are virtual machine instances that are dedicated to running the PostgreSQL-compatible database engine that applications use to query your cluster's data. AlloyDB organizes nodes into instances, each of which has a private, static IP address in your VPC. In practice, your applications connect to instances at these IP addresses using PostgreSQL protocols. The instances then pass SQL queries to their nodes

AlloyDB has two kinds of instances:

  • Primary instance: Every cluster has one primary instance, providing a read/write access point to your data. A primary instance can be either highly available (HA) or basic.
  • HA primary instance: An HA primary instance has two nodes: an active node and a standby node. AlloyDB monitors the availability of the active node, and it automatically promotes the standby node into the active node when necessary.
  • Basic instance: Non-production environments not requiring high availability can optionally use basic instances. A basic instance has only one node, with no standby node.
  • Read pool instance: Your cluster can optionally have one or more read pool instances, each containing one or more read-only nodes, up to a cluster-wide maximum of 20. AlloyDB automatically load-balances all requests sent to a read pool instance, routing them to the instance's nodes.

AlloyDB Key Features

  • Automatic and adaptive database features:The fully PostgreSQL-compatible database engine that powers every AlloyDB node has several features that continuously analyze the structure and frequency of the queries that your instances handle, using this information to suggest schema improvements or automatically apply optimizations:
  • High availability: By default, an AlloyDB cluster offers availability (HA) through its primary instance's redundant nodes, located in two different zones, with automatic failover. Clusters operating in non-production environments that do not require HA can optionally use basic, single-zone primary instances instead adding read pool instances containing at least two nodes creates further load-balanced, multi-zonal, high-availability access points to your data. All read pool instances run independently of the primary instance.
  • Data backup and disaster recovery: AlloyDB features a continuous backup and recovery system that lets you create a new cluster based on any point in time within an adjustable retention period. This lets you recover quickly from data-loss accidents.
    In addition, AlloyDB can create and store complete backups of your cluster's data, either on demand or on a regular schedule. At any time, you can restore from a backup to a new AlloyDB cluster that contains all the data from the original cluster at the moment of the backup's creation.
  • Security and access control: You can configure a cluster to require connection with the secure AlloyDB Auth Proxy, which uses Google Cloud Identity Access and Management (IAM) for access control. AlloyDB uses the standard PostgreSQL user role system for authentication, introducing a handful of additional roles specific to AlloyDB.
  • Encryption: AlloyDB protects all data at rest using Google's encryption methods by default. If you instead need to encrypt your data using a key that you provide, then you can specify a customer-managed encryption key (CMEK) when creating a cluster. AlloyDB then uses the CMEK key to encrypt all data written to that cluster.

GCP Spanner

Google Cloud Spanner is a globally distributed, horizontally scalable, and strongly consistent database service provided by Google Cloud Platform (GCP). It is designed to seamlessly integrate the best features of traditional relational databases with the benefits of cloud-native NoSQL databases.

Key Aspects of Google Cloud Spanner:

  • Global Distribution: Spanner allows you to distribute your data globally across multiple regions. This ensures low-latency access to data for users around the world.
  • Horizontally Scalable:Spanner can dynamically scale horizontally to handle increased workloads. It is built to scale both in terms of storage and compute capacity.
  • Strong Consistency: Spanner provides strong consistency across all nodes and regions. This means that reads and writes are guaranteed to be consistent globally, ensuring data integrity.
  • SQL Support: Spanner supports SQL queries and transactions, making it familiar to developers accustomed to relational databases. This allows for easy integration with existing applications.
  • Automatic Sharding: The database is automatically sharded, and data is distributed across nodes in a way that maintains consistency and availability.
  • Horizontal Scaling: Spanner allows you to add or remove nodes without downtime, providing elasticity to handle changing workloads.
  • Global Transactions:Spanner supports globally distributed transactions, allowing you to perform transactions that involve data across multiple regions.
  • Integrated Security: Spanner integrates with Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM) for access control, and it supports encryption both in transit and at rest.
  • Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC):MVCC is used to manage concurrent access to data. It allows multiple transactions to occur simultaneously without conflicts.
  • Backups and Point-in-Time Recovery: Spanner provides automated backups and allows you to perform point-in-time recovery to a specific timestamp.
  • Managed Service:: As a fully managed service, Google Cloud Spanner takes care of operational aspects such as backups, patching, and updates.

Google Cloud Spanner is a powerful and versatile database service that is well-suited for applications requiring global distribution, strong consistency, and seamless scalability. It's commonly used in scenarios where traditional databases may face challenges in meeting the demands of a global and distributed architecture.

GCP BigTable & Big Query

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) offers two distinct services for handling large-scale data processing and analytics: Bigtable and BigQuery. Both services are designed to manage and analyze massive datasets, but they have different use cases and characteristics.

Big Table Big Query
Type NoSQL big data database service. Fully managed serverless data warehouse and analytics platform.
Use Case Ideal for handling large amounts of data with high read and write throughput. Ideal for running ad-hoc SQL queries on large datasets for analytics and business intelligence.
Data Model Wide-column store (NoSQL). SQL-based (relational).
Scalability Horizontally scalable for both storage and throughput. Automatically scales to handle large datasets and complex queries.
Performance Designed for low-latency data access with high throughput. Provides high-speed SQL queries using a massively parallel processing (MPP) architecture.
Integration Integrates well with other Google Cloud services like Apache,
HBase, Apache Beam, and more.
Easily integrates with various BI tools, data preparation tools, and data connectors.
Query Language Bigtable doesn't use SQL; instead, it provides APIs for data access. BigQuery uses SQL for querying.
When to Choose when you need real-time, low-latency access to large amounts of operational data. when you need to perform complex analytics and queries on large datasets.


Firestore is a fully managed, NoSQL document database service provided by Google Cloud Platform (GCP). It is designed to store and synchronize data for web, mobile, and server applications in real-time. Firestore is part of the Firebase suite of products, but it is also available as a standalone service on GCP.

Key Features of Firestore

  • NoSQL Document Database: Firestore is a NoSQL database that stores data in a flexible, schema-less JSON-like format.
  • Real-Time Data Sync: Offers real-time data synchronization across devices. Changes made to the data are automatically propagated to all connected clients.
  • Collections and Documents: Data is organized into collections, which can contain documents. Documents are key-value pairs, and collections can contain multiple documents.
  • Scalability:Firestore is designed to scale horizontally to handle large amounts of data and high read and write loads.
  • Multi-Region Support: Allows you to deploy databases in multiple regions to ensure low-latency access for users around the world.
  • Serverless: Firestore is serverless, meaning you don't need to manage the underlying infrastructure. Google takes care of scaling and maintenance.
  • SDKs for Various Platforms: Provides SDKs for various programming languages, including JavaScript, Java, Python, and more. This enables easy integration into web, mobile, and server applications.

Firestore is suitable for a wide range of applications, including mobile and web apps, where real-time synchronization and scalability are crucial. It is often used for scenarios like user profiles, chat applications, collaborative editing, and more. Firestore's ease of use and real-time capabilities make it a popular choice for developers building modern, responsive applications.

Recovery Point Objective (RPO) & Recovery Time Objective (RTO)

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) provides a range of services and features that can contribute to achieving specific Recovery Point Objective (RPO) and Recovery Time Objective (RTO) goals in the context of disaster recovery and business continuity. The actual RPO and RTO values will depend on the specific configurations and strategies implemented by the organization.

Here are some considerations related to RPO and RTO in the context of GCP:

  • Data Replication and Backup:
    RPO Considerations: GCP offers services like Cloud Storage and Cloud Storage Transfer Service for storing and replicating data across regions. Organizations can implement regular backups to minimize data loss in the event of a disruption.
    RTO Considerations: Quick access to backed-up data can contribute to achieving lower RTO values.
  • Database Services:
    RPO Considerations: Cloud Spanner and Cloud Bigtable provide global distribution and replication, helping to achieve low RPO by ensuring data availability across regions.
    RTO Considerations: Cloud SQL, Cloud Spanner, and other database services offer features for automatic failover and high availability, contributing to lower RTO values.
  • Compute Engine and Managed Instance Groups:
    RTO Considerations: Utilizing Compute Engine instances in conjunction with Managed Instance Groups enables automated instance scaling, load balancing, and automatic healing, contributing to lower RTO.
  • Networking:
    RPO/RTO Considerations: Implementing global load balancing and multi-region deployment strategies can help distribute traffic and enhance availability, contributing to lower RTO.
  • Disaster Recovery Planning:
    RPO/RTO Considerations: Organizations should have well-defined disaster recovery plans that consider the specific characteristics of GCP services being used. This may involve testing failover mechanisms, validating backup and recovery procedures, and ensuring the readiness of personnel.
  • Monitoring and Incident Response:
    RTO Considerations: Effective monitoring using tools like Stackdriver can help identify disruptions quickly, facilitating a faster incident response and lowering RTO.
  • Serverless Services:
    RPO/RTO Considerations: Leveraging serverless services, such as Cloud Functions or Cloud Run, can reduce the management overhead and potentially contribute to lower RTO.

It's important for organizations to work closely with their IT and operations teams to assess specific RPO and RTO requirements based on business needs and risk tolerance. Additionally, regular testing and simulation of disaster recovery scenarios are crucial to ensure that the defined objectives can be met in practice

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